Fraud involves intentionally deceiving individuals or the public through dishonest means to obtain financial or property gain. This can encompass various activities such as identity theft, tax evasion, insurance fraud, telemarketing schemes, and embezzlement, among others.

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Forgery is the process of falsifying documents with the intention of making them appear authentic to deceive or mislead others. This criminal act, outlined in section 366 of the Criminal Code, includes modifying, creating, or imitating documents with the intent to use them as genuine, such as forging signatures on cheques or creating counterfeit documents for insurance claims or medical benefits.

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Counterfeiting is the act of creating or dealing with fake currency as though it were real, which is illegal. This includes the production, possession, circulation, and the international trade of counterfeit money, aiming to deceive others into accepting it as legitimate.

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Identity theft involves the unauthorized collection or possession of another individual's personal identifying information for the purpose of committing or facilitating the commission of a crime that incorporates fraud, deceit, or falsehood.

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